Ricardo T. Gazzinelli and Eric Y. Denkers
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have emerged as a major receptor family involved in non-self recognition. They have a vital role in triggering innate immunity and orchestrate the acquired immune response during bacterial and viral infection. However, the role of TLRs during infection with protozoan pathogens is less clear. Nevertheless, our understanding of how these parasitic microorganisms engage the host TLR signalling system has now entered a phase of rapid expansion. This Review describes recent insights into how parasitic protozoans are sensed by TLR molecules, and how the TLR system itself can be targeted by these microbial pathogens for their own survival.